Three decades after the first publication of Forrest Gump, Winston Groom returns to fiction with this sweeping American epic. Long fascinated with the Mexican Revolution and the vicious border wars of the early 20th century, Winston Groom brings to life a much-forgotten period of history in this sprawling saga of heroism, injustice, and love. An episodic novel set in six parts, El Paso pits the legendary Pancho Villa, a much-feared outlaw and revolutionary, against a thrill-seeking railroad tycoon known as the Colonel, whose fading fortune is tied up in a colossal ranch in Chihuahua, Mexico. But when Villa kidnaps the Colonel's grandchildren in the midst of a cattle drive and absconds into the Sierra Madre, the aging New England patriarch and his adopted son head to El Paso, hoping to find a group of cowboys brave enough to hunt the generalissimo down. Replete with gunfights, daring escapes, and an unforgettable bullfight, El Paso, with its textured blend of history and legend, becomes an indelible portrait of the American Southwest in the waning days of the frontier. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Robertson Dean. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/reco/009761/bk_reco_009761_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Climate change is today's news, but it isn't a new phenomenon. Centuries-long cycles of heating and cooling are well documented for Europe and the North Atlantic. These variations in climate, including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), AD 900 to 1300, and the early centuries of the Little Ice Age (LIA), AD 1300 to 1600, had a substantial impact on the cultural history of Europe. In this pathfinding volume, William C. Foster marshals extensive evidence that the heating and cooling of the MWP and LIA also occurred in North America and significantly affected the cultural history of Native peoples of the American Southwest, Southern Plains, and Southeast. Correlating climate change data with studies of archaeological sites across the Southwest, Southern Plains, and Southeast, Foster presents the first comprehensive overview of how Native American societies responded to climate variations over seven centuries. He describes how, as in Europe, the MWP ushered in a cultural renaissance, during which population levels surged and Native peoples substantially intensified agriculture, constructed monumental architecture, and produced sophisticated works of art. Foster follows the rise of three dominant cultural centers-Chaco Canyon in New Mexico, Cahokia on the middle Mississippi River, and Casas Grandes in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico-that reached population levels comparable to those of London and Paris. Then he shows how the LIA reversed the gains of the MWP as population levels and agricultural production sharply declined; Chaco Canyon, Cahokia, and Casas Grandes collapsed; and dozens of smaller villages also collapsed or became fortresses. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Michael Lenz. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/015304/bk_acx0_015304_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Ouachita orogeny was a mountain building event that resulted in the folding and faulting of strata currently exposed in the Ouachita Mountains. The more extensive Ouachita system extends from the current range in Arkansas and Oklahoma southeast to the Black Warrior Basin in Alabama and to the southwest through the Llano, Marathon, and Solitario uplifts in Texas on into Coahuila and Chihuahua in Mexico. The region during the early Paleozoic lay off the coast of the southern portion of Laurentia, in what is now Southern United States. Laurentia straddled on the equator at the time and the Rheic Ocean was to the south of Laurentia. Through the Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and early Carboniferous, marine sedimentation left extensive deposits of black shale, quartzose sandstone, and chert beds.
Hundreds of miles from its supply center in Chihuahua and just freed from the grip of Spain's mercantilist colonial policies, New Mexico was ripe for foreign commerce when the first of the Missouri traders arrived in Santa Fe in 1821. For the next forty years trade flourished between Americans hawking anything that would sell, often at incredible profit, and New Mexican buyers hungry for all types of manufactured goods. But the frontier moved inevitably westward, goods became more readily available and consequently less expensive, and the railroad at last replaced the mulewhackers who had long plied the Santa Fe Trail. 'Broadcloth and Britches' is the first account to synthesize an abundance of primary source material--the reminiscences of traders, the impressions of journalists and soldiers, the unpublished manuscripts of both literate and semiliterate observers--and serious scholarly journal articles and monographs of the Santa Fe Trail and trade. In this detailed and lively narrative, the authors trace the origins, development, and decline of the trade: the early expeditions; the route and its hazards; transport, financing, and profits; the effects of complex political shifts in Spain, Mexico, Texas, and the United States; and the economic consequences of increasingly efficient supply to a relatively fixed market.
Alpine was born a railroad town, but long before the whistle of the steam locomotive broke the silence of Alpine Valley, the nearby spring was a favored campground for prehistoric nomads and later for Spanish explorers and freighters along the Chihuahua Trail. When the Southern Pacific unfurled its line down from Paisano Pass in 1882, landowner Thomas Murphy saw opportunity and platted the town. In 1887, Alpine was chosen as the county seat, and with the opening of Sul Ross Normal College in 1920, the town became the academic hub of the region. Following a decade of prosperity, the Great Depression and recurrent droughts triggered a slow decline. But since the early 1990s, Alpine has enjoyed a surge in regional art and culture, allowing it to reclaim its former glory as a proud little cosmopolitan cowtown perched at the top of the Texas Big Bend.
This book is a richly detailed examination of social interaction in the city of Chihuahua, a major silver mining center of colonial Mexico. Founded at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the city attracted people from all over New Spain, all summoned 'by the voices of the mines of Chihuahua.' The author shows how abstract relationships of class, political subordination, ethnicity, and gender took concrete form in the daily life of the diverse people of Chihuahua. Reviews 'Martin's well-written social history . . . is modest in length, but it is packed with insights and observations that will be useful both to scholars interested in other Mexican regions and to those who study early modern social relations in other settings. . . . Immensely informative and interesting . . . this rich volume will undoubtedly be influential for years to come.' &#8212; American Historical Review 'Extremely readable and impressively researched . . . this is an ambitious and deeply analytical study. . . . Among the work's many virtues are the clarity and unpretentiousness of its style, its insightfulness (without over-theorizing), and its sensitivity to its sources.' &#8212; Latin American Studies 'Martin has given us a fine study of an eighteenth-century Mexican mining town. It is a work of painstaking scholarship, soft-spoken but with hard theoretical edges, written with clarity, economy, and grace.' &#8212; Canadian Journal of History
In the rugged High Chihuahua Desert of West Texas, Marfa lies in the northeast corner of Presidio County, 60 miles from the Mexico border. Originally established as a water stop for the Galveston, Harrisburg, and San Antonio Railroad in 1883, it soon became the county seat and heart of a thriving commercial center built around ranching. Marfa's Fort D. A. Russell, first known as Camp Albert and later Camp Marfa, has been home to numerous military units from the early 1900s through the end of World War II. This military presence, combined with the development of the famous Highland Hereford that propelled local cattle ranching to a nationally recognized level, provided the economic and social base for the community well into the 1950s. Marfa's proximity to Mexico contributes tremendously to a remarkable blend of cultures, and today the once remote frontier town has established itself as a sophisticated arts and cultural mecca.
On their return to New Mexico from El Paso after the 1680 Pueblo Revolt, the New Mexican settlers were confronted with continuous raids by hostile Indians tribes, disease and an inhospitable landscape. In spite of this, in the early and mid-eighteenth century, the New Mexicans went about their daily lives as best they could, as shown in original documents from the time. The documents show them making deals, traveling around the countryside and to and from El Paso and Mexico City, complaining about and arguing with each other, holding festivals, and making plans for the future of their children. It also shows them interacting with the presidio soldiers, the Franciscan friars and Inquisition officials, El Paso and Chihuahua merchants, the occasional Frenchman, and their Pueblo Indian allies. Because many of the documents include oral testimony, we are able to read what they had to say, sometimes angry, asking for help, or giving excuses for their behavior, as written down by a scribe at the time. This book includes fifty-four original handwritten documents from the early and mid-eighteenth century. Most of the original documents are located in the Spanish Archives of New Mexico, although some are from the Bancroft Library at the University of California at Berkeley, the Archivo General de la Nacion in Mexico City, and elsewhere. They were selected for their description of Spanish Colonial life, of interest to the many descendants of the characters that appear in them, and because they tell a good story. A translation and transcription of each document is included as well as a synopsis, background notes, and biographical notes. They can be considered a companion, in part, to Ralph Emerson Twitchell's 1914 two volumes, 'The Spanish Archives of New Mexico,' summarizing the documents of the Spanish Archives of New Mexico, now available in new editions from Sunstone Press. LINDA TIGGES, PhD, is a retired land planner. While working in the City of Santa Fe in the 1980s and 1990s, she assisted in drafting and staffing the City's Archaeological Review ordinance, prepared and worked on State Historic Preservation grants and prepared City publications on architectural history and Spanish Colonial Santa Fe. She is a New Mexico certified historian with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division. Written material includes archival research on historic properties, published work on the Santa Fe presidio in 'All Trails Lead to Santa Fe, An Anthology Commemorating the 400th Anniversary of the Founding of Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1610,' from Sunstone Press, as well as articles for the 'New Mexico Historical Review' and the 'New Mexico Genealogical Society Journal.' Her special interest is early and mid-eighteenth century Spanish Colonial documents. She has bachelor's and master's degrees in history from Iowa State University and the University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, and a PhD in Administration from Iowa State University. J. RICHARD SALAZAR retired from the New Mexico State Records Center and Archives in 1996 as Director of the Archival Services Division of that agency. Since that time he has been conducting historical research for the various acequia associations of northern New Mexico in their attempt to determine their acequia priority dates. He has worked with New Mexico's archival documents, including the land grant records, for over forty years.
Early twentieth century Michigan is the setting for It Is Edith's Tree. The story opens in the spring of 1913 with salt and pepper Grandma and eight-year-old Edith and others of the Groner household in a fight with swarming flies in the kitchen and with frail Grandpa wanting to deter strong arm tactics of temperance hellions. There is a wild goose chase to Kansas and Missouri while tar and feathers, chain mail, scorched leaves, tryst, elopement, and loggerheads serve to muddle the issue. Meanwhile the heroes arrive in New Mexico and Chihuahua to tangle with Poncho Villa, Black Jack Pershing, George Patton, and B. D. Foulois and the first U. S. use of military aircraft, trucks, and tanks. Fishing, romance, first brassieres, a yo-yo contest and decisions regarding The Star Spangled Banner coupled with the antics of Charley James, Bet Ho, Yen Ho, and Skyarms round out Edith's life as she enters high school at an age too young for the garment required by her friends but not too young for the heart to be broken as young men leave for war.